Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that affects a large proportion of reproductive-age women. PCOS patients may have irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles, as well as elevated levels of male hormone (androgen).The ovaries may develop a large number of small fluid collections (follicles) and fail to release eggs on a regular basis.
PCOS symptoms frequently appear during adolescence . The symptoms can also appear later in life, as a result of significant weight gain, for example.
How does it lead to infertility?
Every month, tiny fluid-filled cysts known as follicles develop on the surface of the ovary in women of childbearing age. Female sex hormones, such as oestrogen, stimulate one of the follicles to produce an egg. The egg is then released from the follicle by the ovary.
Female sex hormones are imbalanced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS. The imbalance may prevent mature eggs from developing and releasing.
Lifestyle changes for boosting fertility
Although having PCOS may make getting pregnant more challenging, there are ways women can boost fertility.
Women who are unable to conceive due to ovulation issues can seek fertility treatment. Fertility drugs, like natural hormones like follicle-stimulating hormones and luteinizing hormones, aid in ovulation stimulation. These drugs are also used by women who ovulate in order to stimulate more or better eggs.
2. Weight Management
Maintaining a healthy weight is important because it increases the chances of becoming pregnant and lowers the risks associated with pregnancy. Between 18.5 and 24.9 is the ideal BMI for conceiving. A BMI of 35 or higher at the start of your pregnancy is thought to increase your risk of pre-eclampsia, which is a dangerous condition for both mother and baby. Blood clots, long labour, diabetes during pregnancy, and an emergency caesarean delivery are some of the complications associated with a high BMI.
3. Reduce stress
Stress can be harmful to a woman who is trying to conceive. Meditation, listening to music, doing yoga, going for a walk, exercising, and playing with pets are all ways to de-stress and boost fertility.
5. Eating a well-balanced diet
A well-balanced diet is critical. It is advised to eat healthily and avoid junk foods. Consume foods high in iron and zinc, as well as high fibre foods such as bread, brown rice, seeds, low carbohydrate foods, and dairy products high in fat. Increase your intake of fruits and vegetables, such as lentils and beans. One must avoid sugary foods and beverages, such as sweets, cookies, and fizzy drinks. Consume more unsaturated fats such as avocados, nuts, oily fish, and seeds instead of saturated fats found in foods such as pastry, biscuits, pies, and cakes.
Treatments for boosting fertility
Sometimes lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery are ineffective. If this occurs in your case, IVF may be an option. To begin, you will receive fertility injections to stimulate your ovaries. You'll most likely lay multiple eggs at once. After the eggs have been collected, they will be fertilised with sperm.
A part of total fertilised eggs can be frozen and used later. Some will be transferred to your uterus where they will implant and grow. IVF may increase the chances of having multiple children. The success rate is 50-60%.
IUI is a non-surgical fertility treatment. The procedure is considered "low-tech" because it is less complicated than IVF, can be completed in a single treatment session, and is less expensive than many other assisted reproductive techniques. IUI is typically used in conjunction with ovarian stimulation. This allows us to encourage the production and release of mature eggs while also timing ovulation to coincide with the IUI procedure. The success rate is between 15-20%.
Medication and injections are used to mature and release the egg. Concurrently, the patient is summoned for frequent ultrasounds known as follicular monitoring to track the development of the egg, whether it is growing and finally rupturing or not. We ask patients to have a 2-3 day intercoruse after the egg ruptures. Success rate is 7-10%
Though PCOS can complicate pregnancy, having a baby is not impossible, and women should not give up hope. Women with PCOS who want to become pregnant can seek diagnosis and treatment from a healthcare provider.
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Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is a basic fertility technique in which processed (concentrated and washed) sperms are implanted into a woman’s uterus during ovulation to boost her chances of becoming pregnant.
Fertilization (meeting of egg and sperm) occurs in the body during IUI (fallopian tubes). IVF, on the other hand, is carried out in a laboratory.
The success rate of IUI is approximately 20%.
Stimulated IVF- A woman takes medicines/injections for 9 to 12 days to stimulate both of her ovaries to generate and mature multiple egg follicles. During the stimulation phase, a physician will do ultrasounds to track the follicles growth until they reach a specified size (18-22mm). Natural IVF- In this cycle, instead of stimulating your ovaries to produce multiple eggs, the Natural Cycle IVF Process is meant to select that one egg that your body produces naturally.
Multiple pregnancy risk is reduced. Reduces the high costs associated with stimulation medicines. Reduces the risk of drug-related adverse effects.
Controlled ovarian hyper stimulation is a procedure in which the patient’s ovaries are stimulated for 10-12 days with hormone injections (gonadotrophins) in order to obtain the highest number of mature oocytes (eggs).The response to these injections is tracked by ultrasound, and after the cohort of follicles reaches 18-22mm (minimum 4-5), a trigger injection is administered, followed by ovum pickup (egg collection) 34-36 hours later.
Ovaries of some females might respond excessively to the fertility drugs. OHSS(Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome) occurs in a minority of females who overrespond, symptoms of which include, vomiting, nausea, severe discomfort, abdominal distension and dehydration. Note: The patient should immediately notify the clinician in case of such symptoms
A couple is considered to be infertile when they fail to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse.
No, babies born out of IVF do not have any genetic abnormalities.